Zambia, a country of superlatives – Victoria Falls, one of the most spectacular in the world, Lake Tanganyika, one of the deepest in the world, one of the richest game parks in Africa (Kafue and Lower National Parks Zambezi, Luanga-South Park), delights lovers of wild and authentic nature!
And you will be seduced by its friendly people.



14, 5 million persons.


746 000 km2.

Capital City



Ndola, Kitwe, kabwe.

High Point

Mafinga Hills (2 300 m). 


English (Official)


Christians 97%


Compared to France, plus one hour from November to March same time, April to October. UTC/GTM: +2



Without access to the sea, Zambia is bordered by Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana to the south, Angola to the west. Land of hills and plateaus between 1,200 and 1,500 meters above sea level, where some peaks exceed 2,000 meters, Zambia is the domain of forest, or miombo (deciduous trees and grass cover), and savannah. Vast areas periodically flooded occupy the depressions: in the west of the country, the basin of Lake Bangweulu. Zambia is crossed by the Zambezi and its tributaries – the Kafue and Luangwa – and dotted with a few lakes – Bangweulu, Moero, Tanganyika, Kariba.


The dry season runs from late May to early October and is ideal for wildlife viewing (it can be extremely hot in October). The weather is generally dry in June, July and August, with cooler temperatures and sometimes cold nights. The rainy season, or “emerald” season, extends from December to April, the
landscape is lush.


While the majority of the population lives from agriculture, it is the Copper Belt mines that provide most of the commercial resources.

The peasants still practice, especially in the east, slash and burn cultivation with low yield, and the country resorts to imports to feed its population; food production is mainly based on cassava, cereals (maize) and vegetables (beans). European planters still own a few hundred large farms, which represent approximately 45% of agricultural production (corn, tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, milk). The herd of cattle occupies an important place, ahead of the goats. Fishing is active in lakes and rivers.

The subsoil contains cobalt, zinc and lead, and the copper deposits show signs of depletion. Coal mine production has halved since 1970. The industrial sector is mainly based on the Ndola Refinery, which processes crude oil transported by pipeline from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for metallurgy, copper refining,
mining and mining. textiles, agri-food, chemicals and several car or tractor assembly plants (European or Japanese brands).

Internal communications are poor and external links complicated by the country’s isolation. The main railway, the Tan-Zam, built by the Chinese and completed in 1975, connects Dar es Salaam to the Copperbelt. The north-south line connects the country to South Africa via Zimbabwe and to Angola via the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Kariba (Zambezi) and Kafue dams supply the country with electricity.


About 70 ethnic groups, mainly Bantu, mostly belonging to the domain of matrilineal tradition where authority over children is exercised by the maternal uncle, constitute the population; the Lozis populate the plain of Barotseland, the Bembas the northeast, the Tongas and the Ilas in the southwest, in the south. The patrilineal tribes, based on paternal ancestry, mainly include Kololos mixed with Lozis and Ngonis, a Zulu clan established in the south. The majority of the country’s 70,000 citizens before independence left Zambia.

The population, although of low average density, is very unevenly distributed. It is in the mining area – the copper belt – in the north, that the main cities are located, with the exception of Lusaka, the capital. The rate of urbanization is growing rapidly. The population is extremely young, 46% of Zambians are under the age of 15.

The country’s history

Originally, Zambia was populated by Twa, Pygmies living from hunting and gathering. From the second millennium, Bantu farmers settled, who introduced metallurgy and developed the exploitation of copper deposits. Tongas and Ilas arrive from the 12th century. The Lozis, settled around the same time, were subjugated in the 19th century by a Sotho clan from southern Africa, the Kololos; the Lozis escaped this domination in 1864 by massacring all the kololo chiefs. The Ngonis, who arrived at the beginning of the 19th century, were part of the troops of the Zulu Empire.

In 1911, the region corresponding to present-day Zambia was proclaimed a British colony under the name of Northern Rhodesia. After the Second World War, the Europeans, in the majority in the legislative councils, were challenged by the African movements. In 1948, Harry Nkumbula created the African
National Congress of Northern Rhodesia, of which Kenneth Kaunda, a teacher of Bemba origin, became secretary general. The country gained independence in 1963 as Zambia. K. Kaunda was elected President of the Republic in 1964.

Over the next twenty-five years, landlocked Zambia will spare no effort to free itself from the economic burden of southern Africa. The noose was loosened in 1975 with the accession of Mozambique and Angola to independence, then Rhodesia, which became Zimbabwe in 1980. Zambia is no more opposed than South Africa. South, whose army retaliates to dissuade it from granting asylum to South Africans and Namibian liberation movements. The release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 put an end to twenty-five years of clashes which exhausted the country.

As soon as he came to power in 1964, President Kaunda launched a program to nationalize private companies and then copper mines. Despite strikes and conspiracies, the UNIP and K. Kaunda – elected for a sixth term in 1988 – remained in power until 1991. In 1990, the price of maize doubled following the
removal of subsidies imposed by the Fund monetary policy when inflation exceeded 120%. After serious riots and a failed coup, the president restores the multiparty system demanded by the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), created by Bemba union leader Frederick Chiluba, who wins the legislative elections and presidential elections of 1991. the new president F. Chiluba undertakes the privatization of the companies controlled by the State. In 2001, F. Chiluba – who lost much of his credit during his second term – tried to change the constitution to allow him to run for the third time. Having failed, he supported Levy Mwanawasa who, after a vote marked by massive fraud, was declared in 2002 by the winner of the presidential election to the Supreme Court. Determined, L. Mwanawasa tackles corruption. In 2006, L. Mwanawasa was re-elected President of the Republic; contested by the opposition, the ballot is considered transparent and democratic by international observers.

Cleaning up the state accounts, L. Mwanawasa continues, like his predecessor, to open up Zambia to the Chinese capital. On the death of L. Mwanawasa in 2008, Rupiah Banda, current vice-president and MMD candidate, won the presidential election and completed the term of his predecessor until the 2011

Elected in 2011, Mr. Sata is a very controversial president, accused by his opponents of wanting to muzzle the opposition and slow down economic development. Indeed, while the economic situation has improved, it has mainly benefited from the rise in copper prices, which has had little effect on poverty. Mr. Sata died in 2014. Elected in 2015, Edgar Lungu, Minister of Defense and candidate of the Patriotic Front (PF), succeeded him as President of the Republic.

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